Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2012) 11, 109 - 114

Research article
The Effects of Man-Marking on Work Intensity in Small-Sided Soccer Games
Jake K. Ngo , Man-Chung Tsui, Andrew W. Smith, Christopher Carling, Gar-Sun Chan, Del P. Wong
Author Information
Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Health and Physical Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong

Jake K. Ngo
✉ Department of Health and Physical Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong.
Publish Date
Received: 16-09-2011
Accepted: 18-01-2012
Published (online): 01-03-2012
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The aim of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating defensive rules: with and without man-marking (MM and NMM) on exercise intensity in 3 vs. 3 small- sided games (SSGs). Twelve adolescent soccer players (age: 16.2 ± 0.7 years; body mass: 55.7 ± 6.4 kg; body height: 1.70 ± 0.07 m) participated in this repeated measures study. Each participant performed in four different SSGs formats: 3 vs. 3 MM with and without goals and 3 vs. 3 NMM with and without goals. Each SSG lasted 3 x 4 minutes interspersed with 4 minutes passive recovery. The percentage heart rate reserve (%HRreserve) was recorded continuously during SSG and session-rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) after the SSG. MANOVA showed that defensive rule had significant effects on intensity (F = 5.37, p < 0.01). Specifically, MM during SSG induced significantly higher %HRreserve compared to NMM (Goal: 80.5 vs. 75.7%; No goal: 80.5 vs. 76.1%; p < 0.05, effect size = 0.91-1.06), irrespective of the presence or absence of goals. However, only MM with the presence of goals induced significant higher session-RPE compared to NMM (7.1 vs. 6. 0; p < 0.05, effect size = 1.36), whereas no difference in session-RPE was observed between MM and NMM (7.4 vs. 6.9; p > 0.05, effect size = 0.63) when no goals were used. Higher intra-class reliability and lower coefficient of variation values were also reported in MM as compared to NMM. This study in youth soccer players shows there is ~4.5% increase in heart rate response by using the man-marking in 3 vs. 3 SSG thus the intensity of SSG can be significantly increased when using man-marking tactics.

Key words: Training, football, goal, fitness, aerobic

           Key Points
  • Intensity level of exercise during games can be raised if man-marking rule is adopted.
  • No significant differences in perceived exertion were found in no goal SSG with and without man-marking.
  • Adding goals in 3 vs. 3 SSG can lower perceived exertion without leading to large variations in intensity level.
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