Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2012) 11, 526 - 532

Research article
Effects of Distance Specialization on the Backstroke Swimming Kinematics
Matteo Cortesi1, , Silvia Fantozzi2,3, Giorgio Gatta3
Author Information
1 Department of Histology, Embryology and Applied Biology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
2 Department of Electronics, Computer Science and Systems, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
3 Faculty of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Matteo Cortesi
‚úČ Department of Histology, Embryology and Applied Biology, Via Del Pilastro 8, 40127 Bologna, Italy
Email: m.cortesi@unibo.it
Publish Date
Received: 14-09-2011
Accepted: 20-06-2012
Published (online): 01-09-2012
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ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to investigate different biomechanical variables of backstroke technique in swimmers specialized in different distance events, in order to investigate the capacity to modify the timing of the arm stroke when changing the swimming velocity from sub-maximal to maximal. Two 25-m backstroke trials respectively at 70% of maximum velocity (V70) and at 100% of maximum velocity (Vmax) were performed by 9 200-m distance swimmers and 9 50-m distance swimmers. Swimming velocity, stroke length, stroke rate, duration of different phases of the arm stroke and selected kinematic variables were assessed in both cases. In the 50-m distance swimmers, the duration of the propulsive phase at Vmax, expressed as a percentage of the duration of the total underwater arm stroke, increased significantly (p = 0.001) with increasing swimming velocity. Specifically, both the pull and push phases were fundamental in the increase of duration of the propulsive phase. When compared to 200-m specialists, 50-m distance swimmers seem to be more able to modify their arm stroke phases duration when increasing the swimming velocity in backstroke.

Key words: Arm motion, stroke phases, stroke rate, stroke length, technical analysis


           Key Points
  • The 50-m DS are able to find an optimal timing among the stroke phases increasing the duration of the propulsive phase.
  • The 50-m DS, when increasing the swimming velocity, show a more efficient relationship between propulsive and non propulsive phases with respect to the 200-m DS.
  • Both pull and push phases are key factors for increasing the duration of the propulsive phase for the 50-m DS.
 
 
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