Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2012) 11, 582 - 591

Research article
The Influence of External Perturbations on Running Kinematics and Muscle Activity Before and After Accommodation
Anita Haudum , Jürgen Birklbauer, Erich Müller
Author Information
Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Austria. Christian Doppler Laboratory ‘Biomechanics in Skiing’, Salzburg, Austria.

Anita Haudum
✉ Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Christian Doppler Laboratory "Biomechanics in Skiing", 5400 Hallein – Rif, Austria
Publish Date
Received: 04-05-2012
Accepted: 09-07-2012
Published (online): 01-12-2012
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In the current study, the running pattern of the lower extremity was examined while being perturbed through tubes attached between the ankles and the lower back to analyze influences on the running pattern variability before and after a varied running intervention. 3D-kinematics, joint coupling and electromyography (EMG), as well as their variability, were analyzed in ten healthy male participants during treadmill running (10.5 km·h-1). Pre- and post-tests each consisted of 2 x 30 min treadmill running (one with and one without tubes). The results showed major acute effects on EMG and kinematics, as well as joint coordination variability, due to the constraints (p < 0.05). After the intervention, a process of normalization of most kinematic and EMG parameters occurred; however, EMG variability, kinematic variability and joint coordination variability were reduced during tube running below normal running level (p < 0.05). The findings further indicate rapid kinematic adaptations while muscle activity appears to require longer practice to adapt. The constraint serves to acutely increase variability, but may lead to reduced variability when applied for a longer period of time.

Key words: Adaptation, variability, joint coordination, tube constraints.

           Key Points
  • Normalization of the EMG variability after the training intervention during running with the dynamic constraint
  • Joint coupling variability was reduced after practice intervention during constrained running
  • Kinematic adaptations happen fast while muscle activity requires longer practice
  • Sublevels (i.e., EMGs) were more influenced by the constraint than the macroscopic kinematics.
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