Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2013) 12, 130 - 137

Research article
Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance
Nikolaos Zaras1, , Konstantinos Spengos2, Spyridon Methenitis1, Constantinos Papadopoulos2, Giorgos Karampatsos1, Giorgos Georgiadis1, Aggeliki Stasinaki1, Panagiota Manta2, Gerasimos Terzis1
Author Information
1 Athletics Laboratory, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
2 1 Department of Neurology, Eginition Hospital, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece

Nikolaos Zaras
‚úČ Laboratory of Athletics, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Athens, Ethnikis Antistassis 41, 172 37, Daphne, Athens, Greece
Publish Date
Received: 05-10-2012
Accepted: 14-01-2013
Published (online): 01-03-2013
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05). Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA) increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05), while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (%) decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations.

Key words: Shot put, muscle fibres, ultrasound, ballistic training, muscle mass.

           Key Points
  • Ballistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks.
  • In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance.
  • The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase of the mass of type IIx muscle fibres and no change in their proportion. Thus, this type of training might be used effectively during the last weeks before competition, when the strength training load is usually reduced, in order to increase muscle power and shot put performance in novice shot putters.
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