Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2013) 12, 402 - 408

Research article
Resistance Training for Explosive and Maximal Strength: Effects on Early and Late Rate of Force Development
Felipe B.D. Oliveira1, Anderson S.C. Oliveira1,2, Guilherme F. Rizatto1, Benedito S. Denadai,1 
Author Information
1 UNESP, Rio Claro, Brazil
2 Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark

Benedito S. Denadai
✉ Human Performance Laboratory, UNESP. Av. 24 A, 1515, Bela Vista - Rio Claro - SP - Brazil - CEP - 13506-900.
Publish Date
Received: 16-01-2013
Accepted: 26-03-2013
Published (online): 01-09-2013
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The aim of the present study was to verify whether strength training designed to improve explosive and maximal strength would influence rate of force development (RFD). Nine men participated in a 6-week knee extensors resistance training program and 9 matched subjects participated as controls. Throughout the training sessions, subjects were instructed to perform isometric knee extension as fast and forcefully as possible, achieving at least 90% maximal voluntary contraction as quickly as possible, hold it for 5 s, and relax. Fifteen seconds separated each repetition (6-10), and 2 min separated each set (3). Pre- and post-training measurements were maximal isometric knee extensor (MVC), RFD, and RFD relative to MVC (i.e., %MVC·s-1) in different time-epochs varying from 10 to 250 ms from the contraction onset. The MVC (Nm) increased by 19% (275.8 ± 64.9 vs. 329.8 ± 60.4, p < 0.001) after training. In addition, RFD (Nm·s-1) increased by 22-28% at time epochs up to 20 ms from the contraction onset (0-10 ms = 1679. 1 ± 597.1 vs. 2159.2 ± 475.2, p < 0.001; 0-20 ms = 1958.79 ± 640.3 vs. 2398.4 ± 479.6, p < 0. 01), with no changes verified in later time epochs. However, no training effects on RFD were found for the training group when RFD was normalized to MVC. No changes were found in the control group. In conclusion, very early and late RFD responded differently to a short period of resistance training for explosive and maximal strength. This time-specific RFD adaptation highlight that resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport.

Key words: Quadriceps, muscle adaptation, muscle strength, peak torque, power

           Key Points
  • The time-specific RFD adaptation evoked by resistance training highlight that the method of analyzing RFD is essential for the interpretation of results.
  • Confirming previous data, maximal contractile RFD and maximal force can be differently influenced by resistance training. Thus, the resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport.
  • In active non-strength trained individuals, a short-term resistance training program designed to increase both explosive and maximal strength seems to reduce the adaptive response (i.e. increased RFD) evoked by training with an intended ballistic effort (i.e. high-RFD contraction).
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