Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2013) 12, 646 - 654

Research article
Sport-Specific Motor Fitness Tests in Water Polo: Reliability, Validity and Playing Position Differences
Ognjen Uljevic1, Miodrag Spasic1, Damir Sekulic1,2, 
Author Information
1 Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Teslina 6, Split, Croatia
2 University Department of Health Care Studies, University of Split, Boskovica 31, Split, Croatia

Damir Sekulic
✉ Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Teslina 6, Split, Croatia
Publish Date
Received: 15-12-2012
Accepted: 17-07-2013
Published (online): 01-12-2013
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Sport-specific motor fitness tests are not often examined in water polo. In this study we examined the reliability, factorial and discriminative validity of 10 water-polo-specific motor-fitness tests, namely: three tests of in-water jumps (thrusts), two characteristic swimming sprints (10 and 20 metres from the water start), three ball-throws (shoots), one test of passing precision (accuracy), and a test of the dynamometric force produced while using the eggbeater kick. The sample of subjects consisted of 54 young male water polo players (15 to 17 years of age; 1.86 ± 0.07 m, and 83.1 ± 9.9 kg). All tests were applied over three testing trials. Reliability analyses included Cronbach Alpha coefficients (CA), inter-item- correlations (IIR) and coefficients of the variation (CV), while an analysis of variance was used to define any systematic bias between the testing trials. All tests except the test of accuracy (precision) were found to be reliable (CA ranged from 0.83 to 0.97; IIR from 0.62 to 0.91; CV from 2% to 21%); with small and irregular biases between the testing trials. Factor analysis revealed that jumping capacities as well as throwing and sprinting capacities should be observed as a relatively independent latent dimensions among young water polo players. Discriminative validity of the applied tests is partially proven since the playing positions significantly (p < 0.05) differed in some of the applied tests, with the points being superior in their fitness capacities in comparison to their teammates. This study included players from one of the world’s best junior National leagues, and reported values could be used as fitness standards for such an age. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the proposed test procedures to older subjects and females.

Key words: Field testing, differences, position specific, factor analysis

           Key Points
  • Here presented and validated sport specific water polo motor fitness tests are found to be reliable in the sample of young male water polo players.
  • Factor analysis revealed existence of three inde-pendent latent motor dimensions, namely, in-water jumping capacity, throwing ability, and sprint swimming capacity.
  • Points are found to be most advanced in their fitness capacities which are mainly related to their game duties which allowed them to develop variety of fit-ness components.
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