Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2013) 12, 707 - 715

Research article
Impact of the S.W.E.A.T.™ Water-Exercise Method on Activities of Daily Living for Older Women
Mary E. Sanders1, Nobuo Takeshima2, Michael E. Rogers3, , Juan C. Colado,4, Sebastien Borreani4
Author Information
1 School of Medicine, School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, USA
2 Department of Health Science, National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya, Kanoya, Japan
3 Department of Human Performance Studies, Center for Physical Activity and Aging, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas, USA
4 Research Group in Sport and Health, Laboratory of Physical Activity and Health, Department of Physical Education and Sports, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain

Michael E. Rogers
✉ Department of Human Performance Studies and Center for Physical Activity and Aging, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas, USA
Publish Date
Received: 10-01-2013
Accepted: 21-09-2013
Published (online): 01-12-2013
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Older women may have chronic or age-related conditions that increase the risk of falls or that limit their ability to remain active. It is unclear if a water-based exercise program provides a safe and effective alternative to land-based exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a water-based exercise program method on land-based functional activities of daily living (ADL) for women 60 years and older. This study used a quasi- experimental, nonequivalent control group design. Sixty-six women (60-89 yr of age) self- selected to a water exercise (WEX) group (n = 48) or control (C) group (n = 18). The training consisted of a 16-week (45 min·day-1, 3 d·wk-1) supervised WEX program that included 10 min of warm-up and warm down/stretching and 35 min training using the S.W.E.A.T.™ method in shallow water 1.0-1.2 m, with water temperature approximately 28-29°C. Participants were required to attendat least 94% of the sessions. Assessments for participants included ADL functional field tests. In comparison to the C group, WEX participantsimproved (p < 0.05) flexibility (8%), sit- to-stand (31%), walking speed (16%) and stride length (10%), agility (20%), stair climb (22%), arm curl (39%), and static (42-48%) balance, but not dynamic balance. Results indicate that the S.W.E.A.T.™ method applied to this water exercise program provides a well-rounded, safe, and effective exercise program where older women can improve functional ADL and static balance.

Key words: Functional ADL, water/aquatic exercise, older women

           Key Points
  • Older women with a variety of health conditions participated in 16 weeks of exercise (92% adherence) with no injuries.
  • The S.W.E.A.T.™ method applied to this water-based program was found to significantly improve several aspects of physical function, including postural balance.
  • This shallow water program provided a well-rounded, safe and effective activity for women to improve functional ADL on land.
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