Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2014) 13, 430 - 438

Research article
Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version of the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (Petróczi, 2002)
Jaime Morente-Sánchez1, , Pedro Femia-Marzo2, Mikel Zabala1,3
Author Information
1 Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Spain
2 School of Medicine, University of Granada, Spain
3 Spanish Cycling Federation, Madrid, Spain

Jaime Morente-Sánchez
✉ Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Department of Physical Education and Sport. Carretera de Alfacar s/n 18011, Granada, Spain
Publish Date
Received: 13-01-2014
Accepted: 11-02-2014
Published (online): 01-05-2014
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The aim of the present study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Spanish version of the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS). A cross-sectional multi-sample survey with 17 independent datasets was carried out. Cross-cultural adaptation of the PEAS into Spanish was conducted through forward/backward translations, consensus panels and comparative analyses of known-groups to establish evidence for its reliability and validity. Weighted Kappa coefficients with quadratic weighting were used to assess the reliability of each item, with Cronbach’s internal consistency coefficients for overall scale’s reliability and Spearman’s correlation coefficient for test–retest reliability over a one-week period. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to assess the scale’s structure. Differences between self-admitted doping users and non-users were analysed to verify the PEAS’ construct validity in 8 datasets. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was also used to assess the relationships between the PEAS and self-esteem, self-efficacy and perceived descriptive norm to establish convergent validity. The scale showed satisfactory levels of internal consistency (α = 0.71–0.85), reliability of each item (Kappa values range 0.34-0.64) and temporal stability (r = 0.818; p < 0.001). CFA showed acceptable fit (RMSEA <0.08, mean RMSEA = 0.055; χ2/df < 3, mean χ2/df = 1.89) for all but one samples. As expected, self-admitted doping users showed more positive attitude toward doping than non-users. Significant and strong negative relationship was found between PEAS and self-efficacy; weak negative correlation with self-esteem and and positive correlation with perceived descriptive norm. The Spanish version of PEAS showed satisfactory psychometric properties. Considerations for application and improvement are outlined.

Key words: Doping, assessment, psychometric properties, reliability, validity

           Key Points
  • First study that crosses culturally adapted the PEAS to the Spanish language.
  • The Spanish version of PEAS has satisfactory psychometric properties.
  • Users scored higher than non-users indicating a satisfactory construct validity. Significant positive correlation was found between PEAS and projected use.
  • Significant negative correlation between PEAS and self-esteem and self-efficacy.
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