Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2015) 14, 23 - 28

Research article
Pre-Practice Hydration Status and the Effects of Hydration Regimen on Collegiate Division III Male Athletes
Meir Magal , Rebekah J. Cain, Josh C. Long, Kathleen S. Thomas
Author Information
Division of Mathematics and Sciences, North Carolina Wesleyan College, Rocky Mount, NC, USA

Meir Magal
✉ Division of Mathematics and Sciences, North Carolina Wesleyan College, Rocky Mount, NC, USA
Publish Date
Received: 08-08-2014
Accepted: 29-09-2014
Published (online): 01-03-2015
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Pre-practice euhydration is key in the prevention of heat related injuries. The pre-practice hydration status of male National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-Division III athletes and the effects of a direct hydration regimen have yet to be investigated therefore; the aim of the study was 1) to analyze the pre-practice hydration status of current NCAA-DIII male athletes and 2) assess the impact of a directed intervention on pre-practice hydration status. The study was divided into baseline, pre and post intervention phases. For baseline, hydration status through urine specific gravity (USG) and anthropometric indices were measured prior to morning practice. Following baseline, pre-intervention commenced and participants were assigned to either control (CON) or experimental (EXP) groups. The CON and EXP group participants were instructed to maintain normal hydration and diet schedules and record fluid intake for seven days leading to post-intervention. The EXP group participants were asked to consume an additional 23.9 fl oz (~ 750 ml) per day for one week (7 days) leading to post-intervention. After 7 days the same measures were taken. At baseline, the majority of the participants were hypohydrated. Following the intervention, the EXP group participants consumed significantly more fluids than the participants in the CON group (3277.91 ± 1360. 23 ml vs 1931.54 ± 881.81 ml; p < 0.05). A-two-way repeated measure ANOVA revealed a non-significant time or treatment effect for USG or body mass but did demonstrate a significant USG interaction. In addition, an independent t-test examining absolute changes in USG demonstrated a significant difference between groups in which the EXP group improved hydration status and the CON group did not (-0.02 ± 0.006 vs 0.001 ± 0.005 ml; p < 0.05). In addition, there was no significant (p >0.05) difference in the regression slopes or intercepts between the CON and EXP groups when expressed as daily fluid intake per kg body (ml·kg-1) and change in USG from pre-intervention to post-intervention. Most of the participants were hypohydrated at baseline/pre-intervention and the direct hydration intervention improved post-intervention hydration status but only to a small extent.

Key words: Hypohydration, refractometer, hydration intervention, urine specific gravity

           Key Points
  • The majority of NCAA-DIII male athletes whom we assessed prior to practice through the use of USG appeared to be hypohydrated.
  • The hydration intervention of adding 24.9 fl oz (~750ml) per day to an athlete’s daily fluid intake led to a significant increase in fluid consumption but resulted in only small improvements in USG.
  • The only small improvement in hydration status following the intervention may be a result of an intervention volume that is too small or an under-reporting of fluid consumption.
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