Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2015) 14, 41 - 46

Research article
Self-Paced and Temporally Constrained Throwing Performance by Team-Handball Experts and Novices without Foreknowledge of Target Position
Elissavet N. Rousanoglou1, , Konstantinos S. Noutsos2, Ioannis A. Bayios2, Konstantinos D. Boudolos1
Author Information
1 Sport Biomechanics Lab, Department of Sport Medicine & Biology of Exercise,
2 Department of Sport Games, School of Physical Education & Sport Science, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

Elissavet N. Rousanoglou
✉ Ethnikis Antistasis 41, Daphne, 172-37, Athens, Greece
Publish Date
Received: 26-05-2014
Accepted: 10-10-2014
Published (online): 01-03-2015
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The fixed duration of a team-handball game and its continuously changing situations incorporate an inherent temporal pressure. Also, the target’s position is not foreknown but online determined by the player’s interceptive processing of visual information. These ecological limitations do not favour throwing performance, particularly in novice players, and are not reflected in previous experimental settings of self-paced throws with foreknowledge of target position. The study investigated the self-paced and temporally constrained throwing performance without foreknowledge of target position, in team-handball experts and novices in three shot types (Standing Shot, 3Step Shot, Jump Shot). The target position was randomly illuminated on a tabloid surface before (self-paced condition) and after (temporally constrained condition) shot initiation. Response time, throwing velocity and throwing accuracy were measured. A mixed 2 (experience) X 2 (temporal constraint condition) ANOVA was applied. The novices performed with significantly lower throwing velocity and worse throwing accuracy in all shot types (p = 0.000) and, longer response time only in the 3Step Shot (p = 0.013). The temporal constraint (significantly shorter response times in all shot types at p = 0.000) had a shot specific effect with lower throwing velocity only in the 3Step Shot (p = 0.001) and an unexpected greater throwing accuracy only in the Standing Shot (p = 0.002). The significant interaction between experience and temporal constraint condition in throwing accuracy (p = 0.003) revealed a significant temporal constraint effect in the novices (p = 0.002) but not in the experts (p = 0.798). The main findings of the study are the shot specificity of the temporal constraint effect, as well as that, depending on the shot, the novices’ throwing accuracy may benefit rather than worsen under temporal pressure.

Key words: Throwing velocity, throwing accuracy, visual control, postural control, expertise level

           Key Points
  • The temporal constraint induced a shot specific significant difference in throwing velocity in both the experts and the novices.
  • The temporal constraint induced a shot specific significant difference in throwing accuracy only in the novices.
  • Depending on the shot demands, the throwing accuracy of the novices may benefit under temporally constrained situations.
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