Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2015) 14, 530 - 535

Research article
A New Qualitative Typology to Classify Treading Water Movement Patterns
Christophe Schnitzler1 , Chris Button2, James L. Croft3, Ludovic Seifert1
Author Information
1 C.E.T.A.P.S. Laboratory EA 3832: University of Rouen, France
2 School of Physical Education, Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
3 Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia, Australia

Christophe Schnitzler
✉Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Strasbourg, 14 rue Descartes, 67000 Strasbourg, France
Publish Date
Received: 26-12-2014
Accepted: 14-05-2015
Published (online): 11-08-2015
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This study proposes a new qualitative typology that can be used to classify learners treading water into different skill-based categories. To establish the typology, 38 participants were videotaped while treading water and their movement patterns were qualitatively analyzed by two experienced biomechanists. 13 sport science students were then asked to classify eight of the original participants after watching a brief tutorial video about how to use the typology. To examine intra-rater consistency, each participant was presented in a random order three times. Generalizability (G) and Decision (D) studies were performed to estimate the importance variance due to rater, occasion, video and the interactions between them, and to determine the reliability of the raters’ answers. A typology of five general classes of coordination was defined amongst the original 38 participants. The G-study showed an accurate and reliable assessment of different pattern type, with a percentage of correct classification of 80.1%, an overall Fleiss’ Kappa coefficient K = 0.6, and an overall generalizability φ coefficient of 0.99. This study showed that the new typology proposed to characterize the behaviour of individuals treading water was both accurate and highly reliable. Movement pattern classification using the typology might help practitioners distinguish between different skill-based behaviours and potentially guide instruction of key aquatic survival skills.

Key words: Generalizability theory, clinical education, lifesaving

           Key Points
  • Treading water behavioral adaptation can be classified along two dimensions: the type of force created (drag vs lift), and the frequency of the force impulses
  • Based on these concepts, 9 behavioral types can be identified, providing the basis for a typology
  • Provided with macroscopic descriptors (movements of the limb relative to the water, and synchronous vs asynchronous movements), analysts can characterize behavioral type accurately and reliably.
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