Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2016) 15, 301 - 307

Research article
Comparison of Ball-And-Racket Impact Force in Two-Handed Backhand Stroke Stances for Different-Skill-Level Tennis Players
Kuo-Cheng Lo1, , Yung-Chun Hsieh2
Author Information
1 Physical Education Office, Kun Shan University, Tainan City, Taiwan
2 Institute of Sports and Health, National University of Tainan, Taiwan

Kuo-Cheng Lo
‚úČ Kun Shan University, No.195, Kunda Rd., YongKang Dist., Tainan City 710-03, TAIWAN
Publish Date
Received: 20-04-2015
Accepted: 07-03-2016
Published (online): 23-05-2016
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This study compared the kinetic roles of the upper extremities in racket impact force generation between the open stance (OS) and square stance (SS) for tennis players with different skill levels in two-handed backhand strokes. Twelve male tennis players were divided into an advanced group (AG) (L3-L2 skill level) and intermediate group (IG) (L7-L6 skill level), and their data were used in a three-dimensional kinetic analysis. Their motions were captured using 21 reflective markers attached to anatomic landmarks for two-handed backhand stroke motion data collection. During the acceleration phase, significant differences were not observed between both stances, but they were observed between the groups with different skill levels for the force of the upper extremities (p = 0.027). The joint forces were significantly lower in the AG than in the IG. Players performing the SS had significantly larger pronation and supination of the wrist joint moment than those in the OS (p = 0.032) during the acceleration phase, irrespective of the playing level. Higher internal rotation moment after impact was observed at each joint, particularly among young intermediate tennis players, regardless of their stance. The AG demonstrated a higher joint force and moment at every joint compared with the IG at impact. Moreover, the AG demonstrated superior stroke efficiency and effectively reduced joint moment after impact and sports injury.

Key words: Biomechanics, upper extremity, kinetic, acceleration, open stance, square stance

           Key Points
  • Advanced players, regardless of open stance or square stance, have larger joint force and moment at each joint before ball impact resulting in better stroke efficiency and reduced chance of injury.
  • Intermediate players, regardless of stance, have higher internal rotation moment at each joint instead of larger joint force as compared to advanced players before ball impact. The higher internal rotation moment will induce higher joint impact force which makes the player injury-prone.
  • Young intermediate tennis players may want to avoid excessive follow-through movement after ball impact to prevent injury in their early career.
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