Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2016) 15, 50 - 56

Research article
Acute Effects of Foot Rotation in Healthy Adults during Running on Knee Moments and Lateral-Medial Shear Force
Kevin A. Valenzuela1, Scott K. Lynn2, Guillermo J. Noffal2, Lee E. Brown2, 
Author Information
1 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
2 California State University, Fullerton, USA

Lee E. Brown
✉ California State University, Fullerton, Department of Kinesiology, KHS 233, 800 N. State College Blvd., Fullerton, CA 92831, USA
Publish Date
Received: 01-07-2015
Accepted: 24-11-2015
Published (online): 23-02-2016
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As runners age, the likelihood of developing osteoarthritis (OA) significantly increases as 10% of people 55+ have symptomatic knee OA while 70% of people 65+ have radiographic signs of knee OA. The lateral-medial shear force (LMF) and knee adduction moment (KAM) during gait have been associated with cartilage loading which can lead to OA. Foot rotation during gait has been shown to alter the LMF and KAM, however it has not been investigated in running. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the KAM and LMF with foot rotation during running. Twenty participants volunteered and performed five running trials in three randomized conditions (normal foot position [NORM], external rotation [EXT], and internal rotation [INT]) at a running speed of 3.35m·s-1 on a 20 meter runway. Kinematic and kinetic data were gathered using a 9-camera motion capture system and a force plate, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVAs determined differences between conditions. The KAM and LMF were lower in both EXT and INT conditions compared to the NORM, but there were no differences between EXT and INT conditions. The decreases in KAM and LMF in the EXT condition were expected and concur with past research in other activities. The reductions in the INT condition were unexpected and contradict the literature. This may indicate that participants are making mechanical compensations at other joints to reduce the KAM and LMF in this abnormal internal foot rotation condition.

Key words: Osteoarthritis, cartilage, biomechanics, gait

           Key Points
  • External rotation of the foot during running reduced the loads on the medial compartment of the knee
  • Internal rotation of the foot also reduced the medial loads, but is a more unnatural intervention
  • External and internal rotation reduced the shear forces on the knee, which may help slow the degeneration of knee joint cartilage
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