Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2016) 15, 516 - 523

Research article
Assessment of Technical Skills in Young Soccer Goalkeepers: Reliability and Validity of Two Goalkeeper-Specific Tests
Ricardo Rebelo-Gonçalves1, , António J. Figueiredo1, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva1, Antonio Tessitore2
Author Information
1 Faculty of Sports Science and Physical Education, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
2 University of Rome “Foro Italico”, Rome, Italy

Ricardo Rebelo-Gonçalves
✉ Faculty of Sports Science and Physical Education, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Email: r.rebelo.g@portugalmail.pt
Publish Date
Received: 05-01-2016
Accepted: 11-07-2016
Published (online): 05-08-2016
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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of two new tests designed to examine goalkeeper-specific technique. Twenty-six goalkeepers (14.49 ± 2.52 years old) completed two trial sessions, each separated by one week, to evaluate the reproducibility of the Sprint-Keeper Test (S-Keeper) and the Lateral Shuffle-Keeper Test (LS-Keeper). Construct validity was assessed among forty goalkeepers (14.49 ± 1.71 years old) by competitive level (elite versus non-elite), after controlling for chronological age. All participants were examined in vertical jump (CMJ and CMJ-free arms), acceleration (5-m and 10-m sprint) and goalkeeper-specific technique. The S-Keeper requires the goalkeeper to accelerate during 3 m and dive over a stationary ball after performing a change of direction in a total distance of 10 m. The LS-Keeper involves three changes of direction and a diving save over a stationary ball, in a total distance of 12.55 m. Performance was respectively measured as total time for the right and left sides in each protocol. Bivariate correlations between repeated measures were high and significant (r = 0.835 – 0.912). Test-retest results for the S-Keeper and LS-Keeper showed good reliability (reliability coefficients > 0.88, intra-class correlation coefficient > 0.908 and coefficients of variation < 4.37%), even though participants tended to improve performance when diving to their right side (p < 0.05). Both tests were able to detect significant differences between elite and non-elite goalkeepers, particularly to the left side (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the S-Keeper and LS-Keeper are reliable and valid tests for assessing goalkeeper-specific technique. Both protocols can be used as a practical tool to provide relevant information about the influence of several components of performance in the overall execution of a diving save, particularly movement patterns, take-off movements and possible asymmetries.

Key words: Sport specialization, playing position, diving save


           Key Points
  • The S-Keeper and LS-Keeper are reliable tools to assess goalkeeper-specific technique, even though a systematic bias was verified when goalkeepers dived to the right side.
  • The S-Keeper and LS-Keeper were also able to discriminate young goalkeepers by competitive level, particularly when performed to the left side after controlling for chronological age.
  • The proposed tests are recommended as practical instruments to assess and provide relevant information about the influence of several components of performance in the overall execution of a diving save (e.g. previous displacement, movement patterns, take-off movements and possible asymmetries).
 
 
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