**
I created this site to write about things that I find interesting: probability & Bayesian inference, data visualization, puzzles & games, finance, and books.
**

It's the 256th edition of the Riddler, and though I've taken many weekends off to spend time with my newborn, I became obsessed with this week's puzzle! We're asked to play the word guessing game from Lingo, a game show. It reminds me of another one of my favorite Riddlers where we identify the best strategy for playing the math game from Countdown, another game show. The puzzle is extremely challenging, and I couldn't find an exact solution. Instead, I used Python to implement the game engine, and used some heuristics to choose words that resulted in a high score.

I've taken a short break from solving the Riddlers because I've recently become a father! Our daughter, Emerson, was born in September, and I've been working on a new set of puzzles related to parenthood. However, a classic probability question from the Riddler drew me back in with the prospect of writing a dynamic programming solution.

As a self-professed Bayesian enthusiast, this week's Riddler Express is right up my alley! We want to calculate the odds that a coin is magical after flipping it a given number of times. Specifically, we want to calculate the number of flips before we're 99% certain the coin is actually magical. We'll use Bayes's formula to find an exact solution.

We're studying simulated petri dishes in this week's Riddler! We want to figure out how likely a colony of bacteria is to survive, given what we know about how often its cells divide. This is a classic problem that can be modeled with a stochastic process, but we'll try a different approach with very large markov transition matrices built in python and numpy.

I can never resist a good dice problem, and this week's Riddler Express is no different. In a technique called "bowling", you can try to throw a dice so it lands on one of four sides, rather than six. How could we use this to our advantage in a simplified game of craps? We'll solve this with a bit of dynamic programming - my favorite!

We are carefully coloring a poster in this week's Riddler. We want to draw horizontal lines with a marker in order to fill the poster with ink as evenly as possible. How far apart should each marker line be? We'll use numpy for a computational approach that minimizes the standard deviation of our coloring scheme.

Suppose everyone in the United States wanted to join the same video call? If each of the 330 million participants joins and drops at a random time, how likely is it that at least one person overlaps with everyone else? This problem easily exceeds the limits of a practical simulation, but we'll write some code to develop intuition about the results before attempting to solve it analytically.

This week's Riddler starts with a peculiar fact - "Ohio" doesn't share any letters with the word "mackerel", and it's the only state for which that is true. How many other state/word combinations can we find, and which states match with the longest words? We'll use python's super efficient sets, lists, and dictionaries to crunch millions of combinations in under two seconds to find the answer.

This week's Riddler asks us to determine the best dice-rolling strategy for our weekly Dungeons and Dragons game. With the option to roll once, or roll multiple times with various combinations of maximums and minimums, how can we optimize the odds of rolling the number we want?

This was a challenging Riddler about a toddler's inefficient eating habits. Our picky toddler takes a bite from an Apple once every minute, and only if the randomly chosen spot has skin left on it. How long will it take to eat the entire apple? Spoiler - it's likely to outlast the toddler's attention span by quite some time.

This week's Riddler uses probability to design the ultimate jailbreak. Prisoners are given the opportunity to flip coins, and if all flipped coins are heads, each prisoner is released. Without communicating, what strategy should the prisoners use to maximize their odds of success?

The original Monty Hall Show featured three doors, two goats, and a brand new car. Contestants choose a door, Monty reveals a goat behind another door, and contestants are offered the chance to switch their original choice. After heated debate among probability nerds, it was eventually agreed that switching is the optimal strategy, which wins two out of three games. In this week's Riddler, we examine a variation of this game in which the number of goats is random. Does it change the decision to switch?

In memory of John Conway, we explore a modified version of the famous "Game of Life" in this week's Riddler. I implemented the Game in python, which ended up being so much fun that many of the features aren't strictly required to solve the problem. Instead, they were amusing diversions that helped me explored this surprisingly nuanced game. It's probably just as Conway would have intended.

We're tracking spam messages in this week's Riddler. Spammers post messages on the column's comment board, and they also reply to each other's messages. Over a three-day time period, how many spam messages and replies should we expect to see? It turns out there are some fascinating connections with continuously compounding interest rates, which we'll derive from the differential equation. I'll also write a simulation using numpy and poisson distributions to verify our analytical approach.

This week's Riddler was a fun calculus problem. Time to brush off our integrals! On a snowy day we try to pinpoint the moment the snow started based on how long it takes the plows to clear the roads.

Rolling and re-rolling dice is our task for this week's Riddler Classic. Each time we roll, we replace the sides of the dice with the values of our previous roll. This makes for a tricky probability space, but a very fun Python class to write and some markov chain analysis to crunch in order to solve it.

We take all the "guess work" out of a classic board game in this week's Riddler - solving for the optimal strategy in Guess Who! My trusted technique of dynamic programming makes a (predictable) reappearance.

This week's Riddler asks us to estimate how long it takes to get a haircut with our favorite barber. Rather than scheduling an appointment, we roll the dice and hope we won't have to wait too long if we drop by unannounced. How long exactly? We'll use probability distributions and monte carlo simulation to estimate our idle time.

We tackle a solitaire game of coin flipping in this week's Riddler Classic. Using dynamic programming, we build a tree to explore all possible game states and work backwards to identify the ideal move at each state.

This week's Riddler Classic explores ideal strategy in a two-player game. We take turns removing coins from two piles, and the last one to remove a coin wins. I'll use pen and paper to sketch out the logical framework, then code a flexible solution using python and dynamic programming.

This week's Riddler Classic is a delightful diversion - tracking delirious ducks as they randomly swim from rock to rock in a pond. How long will it take them to end up on the same rock? We'll use markov chains in Python to solve it.

Gematria is a numerical system that links Hebrew characters to numbers. This week's Riddler Classic explores the "score" of a number, and asks us to identify any patterns that emerge.

This week's Riddler Classic was a fun way to welcome the new year. We're asked to find seven letters that maximize the score from the New York Times Spelling Bee puzzle. I use pure Python (lists, sets, and dictionaries only) to find the optimum pool of seven words.

This week's Riddler tested our ability to think recursively, but surprisingly not of the coding variety. Instead, we'll use a series of equations to solve the problem analytically. Brings back memories of high school proofs... which I may or may not remember with complete fidelity.

A small twist on a classic problem is this week's challenge from the Riddler. We're going to tackle an extension of the secretary problem - also known as the Sultan's Dowry problem. This classic puzzle has led to fascinating research in optimal stopping theory, which we will use to help our Sultan choose the best possible suitor. Let's dive in!