Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2018) 17, 237 - 244

Research article
Balancing Demands and Resources in Sport: Adaptation and Validation of the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation Questionnaire for Use in Sport
Yannick A. Balk1, , Jan De Jonge1,2, Wido G.M. Oerlemans1,3, Sabine A.E. Geurts4, David Fletcher5, Christian Dormann2,6
Author Information
1 Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
2 University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
3 HumanTotalCare, Utrecht, The Netherlands
4 Radboud University, Behavioural Science Institute, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
5 Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom
6 Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany

Yannick A. Balk
‚úČ Department of Industrial Engineering & Innovation Sciences, Human Performance Management Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
Publish Date
Received: 22-01-2018
Accepted: 20-03-2018
Published (online): 14-05-2018
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Too high demands, combined with a lack of resources, are often detrimental to athletic health and well-being. However, a valid and reliable instrument to investigate different dimensions of demands and resources in sport is currently unavailable. Therefore, the present study examines the psychometric properties of an existing and well-validated survey instrument on demands and resources at task-level that was adapted to sport. This instrument, the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation Questionnaire for Sport (DISQ-SPORT), was empirically tested among 1,101 athletes (416 females and 685 males) from a variety of sports and in different languages. Results supported the proposed six-factor structure of the instrument, consisting of physical, cognitive, and emotional demands and resources. Internal consistencies of all subscales were satisfactory and the instrument was invariant across type of sport, competitive level and language. Continued evaluation of the psychometric properties of the DISQ-SPORT, especially in terms of content validity and test-retest stability, is nevertheless warranted. Theoretical and practical implications as well as areas for future research are discussed.

Key words: Athletes, multidimensionality principle, DISQ-SPORT, psychometrics, measurement invariance

           Key Points
  • Confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence for the three-dimensional nature of both demands and resources in sport.
  • Invariance testing provided support for the factorial invariance of the DISQ-SPORT across sport type, competitive level, and language.
  • Taking into account the multidimensional nature of both demands and resources in sport seems to be relevant for both theory and practice.
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