Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Views
9944
Download
389
 
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2018) 17, 31 - 39

Research article
Skeletal Muscle Estrogen Receptor Activation in Response to Eccentric Exercise Up-Regulates Myogenic-Related Gene Expression Independent of Differing Serum Estradiol Levels Occurring during the Human Menstrual Cycle
Mackenzie Haines1, Sarah K. McKinley-Barnard2, Thomas L. Andre3, Josh J. Gann4, Paul S. Hwang1, Darryn S. Willoughby1, 
Author Information
1 Exercise and Biochemical Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Health, Human Performance, and Recreation; Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA
2 Department of Health, Kinesiology, and Sport; University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, USA
3 Department of Health and Fitness Management, Clayton State University, Morrow, GA, USA
4 Department of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana Monroe, Monroe, LA, USA

Darryn S. Willoughby
✉ Exercise and Biochemical Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Health, Human Performance, and Recreation, One Bear Place #97313, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798-7313, USA
Email: darryn_willoughby@baylor.edu
Publish Date
Received: 10-10-2017
Accepted: 05-12-2017
Published (online): 01-03-2018
Share this article
 
 
ABSTRACT

This study sought to determine if the differences in serum estradiol we have previously observed to occur during the mid-follicular (MF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases of the female menstrual cycle could be attributed to estrogen-induced receptor activation and subsequent effects on myogenic-related genes which may otherwise impact muscle regeneration in response to eccentric exercise. Twenty-two physically-active females (20.9 ± 1.4 years, 63.5 ± 9.0 kg, 1.65 ± 0.08 m) underwent an eccentric exercise bout of the knee extensors during the MF and ML phases of their 28-day menstrual cycle. Prior to (PRE), at 6 (6HRPOST), and 24 (24HRPOST) hours post-exercise for each session, participants had muscle biopsies obtained. Skeletal muscle estradiol and estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) content and ER-DNA binding were determined with ELISA. Real-time PCR was used to assess ER-α, Myo-D, and cyclin D1 mRNA expression. Data were analyzed utilizing a 2 x 3 repeated measures univariate analyses of variance (ANOVA) for each criterion variable (p ≤ .05). Skeletal muscle estradiol levels were not significantly impacted by either menstrual phase (p > 0.05); however, both ER-α mRNA and protein were significantly increased during MF (p < 0.05). ER-DNA binding and Myo-D mRNA expression increased significantly in both menstrual phases in response to exercise but were not different from one another; however, cyclin D1 mRNA expression was significantly greater during MF. This study demonstrates that skeletal muscle ER-α activation in response to eccentric exercise up-regulates myogenic-related gene expression independent of serum estradiol levels occurring during the human menstrual cycle.

Key words: Estrogen, estrogen receptor, skeletal muscle, myogenesis


           Key Points
  • Skeletal muscle estradiol levels do not differ during the MF and ML phase, despite differences in serum estradiol.
  • Skeletal muscle ER-α mRNA and protein expression was greater during MF, despite greater levels of serum estradiol during ML and no difference in muscle estradiol between MF and ML.
  • Skeletal muscle ER-DNA binding and Myo-D mRNA expression was not impacted by either menstrual phase but was elevated in response to eccentric exercise.
  • Skeletal muscle cyclin D1 mRNA expression was impacted by eccentric exercise and was greater for MF.
 
 
Home Issues About Authors
Contact Current Editorial board Authors instructions
Email alerts In Press Mission For Reviewers
Archive Scope
Supplements Statistics
Most Read Articles
  Most Cited Articles
 
  
 
JSSM | Copyright 2001-2020 | All rights reserved. | LEGAL NOTICES | Publisher

It is forbidden the total or partial reproduction of this web site and the published materials, the treatment of its database, any kind of transition and for any means, either electronic, mechanic or other methods, without the previous written permission of the JSSM.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.