Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2020) 19, 95 - 101

Research article
Effects of Swimming with Added Respiratory Dead Space on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Lipid Metabolism
Stefan Szczepan1, , Kamil Michalik2, Jacek Borkowski2, Krystyna Zatoń1
Author Information
1 Department of Swimming, University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Poland
2 Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Poland

Stefan Szczepan
✉ PhD Department of Swimming, University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Poland
Publish Date
Received: 17-07-2019
Accepted: 03-12-2019
Published (online): 24-02-2020
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The aim of this study was to investigate the circulatory, respiratory, and metabolic effects of induced hypercapnia via added respiratory dead space (ARDS) during moderate-intensity swimming in recreational swimmers. A mixed-sex sample of 22 individuals was divided into homogeneous experimental (E) and control (C) groups controlled for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). The intervention involved 50 min of front crawl swimming performed at 60% VO2max twice weekly for 6 consecutive weeks. ARDS was induced via tube breathing (1000 ml) in group E. An incremental exercise test was administered pre- and post-intervention to assess cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) by measuring VO2max, carbon dioxide volume, respiratory minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate at 50, 100, 150, 200 W and at maximal workload. Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) were also measured. The mean difference in glycerol concentration (ΔGLY) was assessed after the first and last swimming session. No significant between-group differences were observed at post-intervention. No within-group differences were observed at post-intervention except for RER which increased in group E at maximal workload. A 6-week swimming intervention with ARDS did not enhance CRF. The RER increase in group E is not indicative of a substrate shift towards increased lipid utilization. No change in ΔGLY is evident of a lack of enhanced triglyceride hydrolyzation that was also confirmed by similar pre- and post-intervention BMI, FM, and FMM.

Key words: Cardiorespiratory fitness, lipid metabolism, added respiratory dead space, swimming

           Key Points
  • The study compared the effects of a 6-week swimming intervention with and without added respiratory dead space (ARDS).
  • Swimming with ARDS did not improve cardiorespiratory fitness measures (VO, VCO, VE, HR) obtained in an incremental exercise test.
  • Post-intervention RER increased after the ARDS swimming intervention, but this change does not suggest a substrate shift towards increased lipid utilization during exercise as evidenced by a lack of change in post-exercise glycerol concentration.
  • No changes were observed in BMI, FM, and FFM.
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