Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2021) 20, 635 - 641   DOI:

Research article
Site-Specific Muscle Loss in the Abdomen and Anterior Thigh in Elderly Males with Locomotive Syndrome
Toshiharu Natsume1,3, Hayao Ozaki2,4, Takashi Nakagata2,5, Toshinori Yoshihara1,2, Tomoharu Kitada2,6, Yoshihiko Ishihara2,7, Pengyu Deng2, Takuya Osawa1,8, Shuji Sawada1, Hiroyuki Kobayashi9, Shuich Machida1,2,10, , Hisashi Naito1,2,10
Author Information
1 COI project center, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
10 Institute of Health and Sports Science & Medicine, Juntendo University, 1-1Hirakagakuendai, Inzai, Chiba, Japan
2 Graduate School of Health and Sports Science, Juntendo University, 1-1 Hirakagakuendai, Inzai, Chiba, Japan
3 Department of Human Structure & Function, School of Medicine, Tokai University, Shimokasuya, Kanagawa, Japan
4 School of Sport and Health Science, Tokai Gakuen University, Miyoshi, Aichi, Japan
5 Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, NIBIOHN, Tokyo, Japan
6 Faculty of Business Administration, Seijoh University, 2-172 Fukinodai, Tokai, Aichi, Japan
7 Department of humanities and Social Sciences, School of Science and Technology forFuture Life, Tokyo Denki University, Adachi-ku, Tokyo, Japan
8 Department of Sports and Health Science, Faculty of Physical Education, Japan Women’s College of Physical Education, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan
9 Mito Medical Center, Tsukuba University Hospital, 3-2-7 Miyamachi, Mito, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

Shuich Machida
✉ Ph.D. Graduate School of Health and Sports Science, Juntendo University, 1-1 Hirakagakuendai, Inzai, Chiba 270-1695, Japan.
Publish Date
Received: 15-02-2021
Accepted: 05-07-2021
Published (online): 01-10-2021
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Although locomotive syndrome (LS) is a condition of reduced mobility, little information is available regarding the loss of site-specific skeletal muscle mass. The aim of the present study is to examine site-specific muscle loss in elderly males with LS. A total of 100 men ranging in age from 65 to 74 years were divided into two groups (LS and non-LS) using LS risk tests including the stand-up test, two-step test, and the 25-question geriatric locomotive function scale Muscle thickness (MTH) at eight sites—anterior and posterior thigh (AT and PT, respectively), anterior and posterior lower leg (AL and PL, respectively), rectus abdominis (RA), anterior and posterior upper arm (AU and PU, respectively), and anterior forearm (AF)—was evaluated using B-mode ultrasound. Furthermore, the 30-s chair stand test (CS-30), 10-m walking time, zig-zag walking time, and sit-up test were assessed as physical functions. There were no significant differences in age and body mass index between the LS and non-LS groups. The percentage of skeletal muscle was lower in the LS group than in the non-LS group. Although there were no differences in the MTH of AU, PU, AF, PT, Al and PL, site-specific muscle loss was observed at RA and AT in the LS group. CS-30, 10-m walking time, zig-zag walking time, and sit-up test in the LS group were all worse than those in the non-LS group. The MTHs of RA and AT were both correlated to those physical functions. In conclusion, the LS group had site-specific muscle loss and worse physical functions. This study suggests that site-specific changes may be associated with age-related physical functions. These results may suggest what the essential characteristics of LS are.

Key words: Mobility, elderly, geriatric locomotive function, muscle thickness, physical function

           Key Points
  • Locomotive syndrome related muscle loss was observed in the anterior thigh and rectus abdominis muscle in elderly males.
  • The elderly males with locomotive syndrome had lower physical functions (30-s chair stand test, 10-m walking time, zig-zag walking time, and sit-up test).
  • Site-specific muscle loss in elderly males with locomotive syndrome suggest age-related decline in physical functions.
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