Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2022) 21, 191 - 199   DOI:

Research article
The Effect of Co-Ingestion of Carbohydrate with Milk after Exercise in Healthy Women: Study Considering the Menstrual Cycle
Tomoka Matsuda1,2, , Akira Ishikawa1, Moe Kanno1, Hazuki Ogata3, Hyunjun Gam1, Akiko Funaki1,4, Nodoka Ikegami3, Mizuki Yamada1, Mikako Sakamaki-Sunaga3
Author Information
1 Graduate School of Health and Sport Science, Nippon Sport Science University, Tokyo, Japan
2 Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan
3 Department of Exercise Physiology, Nippon Sport Science University, Tokyo, Japan
4 Depertment of Judo Therapy, Teikyo University of Science, Yamanashi, Japan

Tomoka Matsuda
‚úČ 7-1-1 Fukasawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8508, Japan
Publish Date
Received: 20-12-2021
Accepted: 22-03-2022
Published (online): 01-06-2022
Share this article

This study aimed to assess the effects of co-ingestion of carbohydrate with milk (MILK) and isocaloric carbohydrate beverage (CHO) on post-exercise recovery and subsequent exercise capacity, considering the menstrual cycle. This study included 12 women with regular menstrual cycles who completed four test days, which started with glycogen-depleting exercise using a cycle ergometer in the early follicular phase (EF) and late follicular phase (LF), followed by 240 min of recovery from the ingestion of 200 mL of CHO or MILK every 30 min immediately after the exercise (POST0) until 210 min post-exercise. After 240 min, participants performed an exercise capacity test. Blood samples and breathing gas samples were collected before the exercise (PRE), POST0, and 120 (POST120) and 240 min after the end of exercise (POST240) to determine the concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, blood glucose, blood lactate, free fatty acid (FFA), and insulin and the respiratory exchange ratio, fat oxidation, and carbohydrate oxidation. The exercise time at exercise capacity test was not significantly different in terms of menstrual cycle phases and recovery beverages ingested. However, there was a significant positive correlation between the exercise capacity test and area under the curve (AUC) of FFA concentrations from POST0 to POST240 in each group (EF + CHO, p < 0.05; LF + CHO, p < 0.05; EF + MILK, p < 0.01; and LF + MILK, p < 0.05). The AUC of FFA from POST120 to POST240 showed no difference between EF (CHO and MILK) and LF (CHO and MILK). However, the AUC of FFA concentrations from POST120 to POST240 was significantly greater in MILK (EF and LF) than that in CHO (EF and LF) (p < 0.05). In active women, circulating substrates and hormone concentrations during short recovery post-exercise are not affected by the menstrual cycle. However, MILK may affect circulating substrates during recovery and the exercise capacity after recovery.

Key words: Cycling, free fatty acid, late follicular phase, menstrual cycle, milk, recovery

           Key Points
  • MILK and CHO was not significantly different in substrate utilization during recovery and exercise capacity tests after recovery in the different menstrual cycle phases when women consume enough carbohydrates during recovery.
  • MILK increased the AUC of FFA concentrations during recovery improved exercise capacity compared to CHO.
  • Milk is an effective post-exercise beverage in healthy women.
Home Issues About Authors
Contact Current Editorial board Authors instructions
Email alerts In Press Mission For Reviewers
Archive Scope
Supplements Statistics
Most Read Articles
  Most Cited Articles
JSSM | Copyright 2001-2022 | All rights reserved. | LEGAL NOTICES | Publisher

It is forbidden the total or partial reproduction of this web site and the published materials, the treatment of its database, any kind of transition and for any means, either electronic, mechanic or other methods, without the previous written permission of the JSSM.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.