Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2022) 21, 214 - 223   DOI:

Research article
Lack of Evidence for Crossover Fatigue with Plantar Flexor Muscles
Saman Hadjizadeh Anvar1,2, , Mohammad Reza Kordi2, Shahab Alizadeh1, Emma Ramsay1, Fatemeh Shabkhiz2, David G. Behm1
Author Information
1 School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada
2 Faculty of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Saman Hadjizadeh Anvar
✉ School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada
Publish Date
Received: 04-03-2022
Accepted: 01-04-2022
Published (online): 01-06-2022
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The occurrence and mechanisms underlying non-local or crossover muscle fatigue is an ongoing issue. This study aimed to investigate crossover fatigue of the plantar flexor muscles. Sixteen recreationally active males (n = 6) and females (n = 10) visited the laboratory for four sessions and performed a single 5-s pre-test maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) with each plantar flexors muscle. Thereafter, the fatigue intervention involved two 100-s MVICs (60-s recovery) with their dominant plantar flexors or rested for 260-s (control). Subsequently, in two separate sessions, Hoffman reflexes (H-reflex) were evoked in the non-dominant, non-exercised, leg before and following the dominant leg fatigue or control intervention (Fatigue-Reflex and Control-Reflex conditions). MVIC forces and volitional (V)-waves were monitored in the non-dominant leg in the other two sessions (Fatigue-MVIC and Control-MVIC) before and after the intervention (fatigue or control) as well as during 12 repeated MVICs and immediately thereafter. Despite the force reduction in the dominant leg (42.4%, p = 0.002), no crossover force deficit with single (F(1,9) = 0.02, p = 0.88, 2 = 0.003) or repeated (F(1,9) = 0.006, p = 0.93, pƞ2 = 0.001) MVIC testing were observed. The H-reflex did not change after the fatigue (F(1,7) = 0.51; p = 0.49; 2 = 0.06) or repeated MVICs (F(1,8) = 0.27; p = 0.61; 2 = 0.03). There were also no crossover effects of fatigue on the V-wave with single (F(1,8) = 3.71, p = 0.09, pƞ2 = 0.31) or repeated MVICs (F(1,6) = 1.45, p = 0.27, pƞ2 = 0.19). Crossover fatigue was not evident with the plantar flexors nor any significant changes in H-reflex and V-waves in the soleus muscle. This finding suggests that crossover fatigue may not necessarily occur in slow-twitch predominant muscle groups.

Key words: Non-local muscle fatigue, soleus, fatigue, Hoffman reflex, V-wave

           Key Points
  • There were no significant crossover impairments in muscle endurance suggesting that when unilaterally training the plantar flexors, crossover decrements may not be an issue.
  • Unilaterally fatiguing the plantar flexors induces only a trivial chance of experiencing single or discrete contraction force or strength decrements in the contralateral limb.
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