Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2022) 21, 347 - 355   DOI: https://doi.org/10.52082/jssm.2022.347

Research article
The Effects of Standardised versus Individualised Aerobic Exercise Prescription on Fitness-Fatness Index in Sedentary Adults: A Randomised Controlled Trial
Michael J. Kirton1, Mitchel T. Burnley1, Joyce S. Ramos1, Ryan Weatherwax2, Lance C. Dalleck3, 
Author Information
1 Caring Futures Institute, SHAPE Research Centre, Clinical Exercise Physiology, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
2 University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America
3 Western Colorado University, Gunnison, Colorado, United States of America

Lance C. Dalleck
✉ Department of Recreation, Exercise, and Sport Science at Western Colorado University
Email: ldalleck@western.edu
Publish Date
Received: 26-03-2022
Accepted: 10-06-2022
Published (online): 01-09-2022
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ABSTRACT

A poor Fitness Fatness Index (FFI) is associated with type 2 diabetes incidence, other chronic conditions (Alzheimer’s, cancer, and cardiovascular disease) and all-cause mortality. Recent investigations have proposed that an individualised exercise prescription based on ventilatory thresholds is more effective than a standardised prescription in improving cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), a key mediator of FFI. Thus, the aim of the current study was to determine the effectiveness of individualised versus standardised exercise prescription on FFI in sedentary adults. Thirty-eight sedentary individuals were randomised to 12-weeks of: (1) individualised exercise training using ventilatory thresholds (n = 19) or (2) standardised exercise training using a percentage of heart rate reserve (n = 19). A convenience sample was also recruited as a control group (n=8). Participants completed CRF exercise training three days per week, for 12-weeks on a motorised treadmill. FFI was calculated as CRF in metabolic equivalents (METs), divided by fatness determined by waist to height ratio (WtHR). A graded exercise test was used to measure CRF, and anthropometric measures (height and waist circumference) were assessed to ascertain WtHR. There was a difference in FFI change between study groups, whilst controlling for baseline FFI, F (2, 42) = 19.382 p < .001, partial η2 = 0.480. The magnitude of FFI increase from baseline was significantly higher in the individualised (+15%) compared to the standardised (+10%) (p = 0.028) and control group (+4%) (p = <.001). The main finding of the present study is that individualised exercise prescription had the greatest effect on improving FFI in sedentary adults compared to a standardised prescription. Therefore, an individualised based exercise prescription should be considered a viable and practical method of improving FFI in sedentary adults.

Key words: Ventilatory threshold, HRR, epidemiology, central obesity, physical activity


           Key Points
  • Cardiorespiratory exercise prescribed individually using ventilatory thresholds had a greater effect on improving Fitness-Fatness Index in sedentary adults compared to a comparable protocol using heart rate reserve.
  • Individualized exercise prescription using threshold metrics should be considered a viable method for improving the Fitness-Fatness Index to help aid in mitigating the future progression of non-communicable disease.
  • Greater improvements in the Fitness-Fatness Index were supported by positive improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness
 
 
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