Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2022) 21, 426 - 434   DOI:

Research article
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing with Elastic Resistance: A New Reproducible Proposal for Determination of Ventilatory Thresholds and Maximum Oxygen Consumption
Victor H. Gasparini Neto1, , Leticia N. Santos Neves1, Carlos A. Kalva-Filho2, Paulo A. Schwingel3, Richard D. Leite1, Luciana Carletti1
Author Information
1 Laboratory of Exercise Physiology (LAFEX), Center of Physical Education and Sports (CEFD), Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória/ES, Brazil
2 Laboratory of Applied Sports Science (LACAE), Institute of Physical Education and Sports, Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL) – Maceió/AL, Brazil
3 Human Performance Research Laboratory, University of Pernambuco (UPE), Petrolina/PE, Brazil

Victor H. Gasparini Neto
✉ Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514 - Goiabeiras, Vitória - ES, ZIP-CODE: 29075-910 – Brazil
Publish Date
Received: 28-03-2022
Accepted: 09-06-2022
Published (online): 01-09-2022
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To propose a new Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test with Elastic Resistance (CPxEL) and compare the physiological responses to conventional cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPx) performed on a treadmill. In addition, we tested the reproducibility of the CPxEL. Twenty-four physically active participants completed the CPx (first session) and CPxEL twice (second and third sessions) interspersed by seven days. A treadmill protocol with increments of 1km·h-1 every minute until exhaustion was used in CPx. The CPxEL consisted of performing alternating steps back-and-forth against an elastic resistance attached to a belt and an incremental protocol with 1 stage (S) per minute following a cadence of 200 bpm controlled by a metronome in an 8-stage rubber mat. First analysis: first ventilatory threshold (VT1) occurred at 69.7% and 75.3% of maximal heart rate (HRmax) and 53.5% and 65.7% of maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Second VT (VT2) occurred at 93.3% and 96.8% of the HRmax and 87.0% and 96.9% of V̇O2max for CPx and CPxEL, respectively. At exhaustion, V̇O2max, perceived exertion (BORG-CR10 and OMNI-RES EB), and test duration presented lower values for CPxEL (P < 0.05). Second analysis: VT1 occurred at warm-up (S0) (P = 0.731), VT2 occurred at S5 (P = 0.912), and the exhaustion occurred at S6 and S7 (P = 0.271) for CPxEL and retest, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for V̇O2max was 0.921 and for HRmax was 0.930. The CPxEL has good test-retest reproducibility and represents a possible and interesting add-on to determine maximal oxygen consumption, maximal heart rate, and second ventilatory threshold without using traditional ergometers.

Key words: Cardiopulmonary exercise test, ventilatory thresholds, exercise testing, accessibility

           Key Points
  • The CPxEL represents a possible and interesting add-on to the CPx, not requiring treadmills or ergometers.
  • The CPxEL has good test-retest reproducibility and represents a possible and interesting add-on to determine maximal oxygen consumption and heart rate.
  • Using back-and-forth movements alternating strides with elastic resistance in an 8-stage rubber mat can be applied to measure maximal (V̇Omax) and submaximal capacity (VT2).
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