Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2023) 22, 175 - 179   DOI: https://doi.org/10.52082/jssm.2023.175

Research article
Time-Course Changes in Dorsiflexion Range of Motion, Stretch Tolerance, and Shear Elastic Modulus for 20 Minutes of Hot Pack Application
Masatoshi Nakamura1, , Tatsuro Ishikawa2, Shigeru Sato3, Ryosuke Kiyono3, Riku Yoshida3, Katsuyuki Morishita4, Andreas Konrad5
Author Information
1 Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Nishi Kyushu University, Kanzaki, Saga, Japan
2 Rehabilitation Unit, Totsuka Kyoritsu Rehabilitation Hospital, Yokohama City, Kanagawa, Japan
3 Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan
4 Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Social Work Studies, Josai International University, Togane, Japan
5 Institute of Human Movement Science, Sport and Health, University of Graz, Graz, Austria

Masatoshi Nakamura
✉ Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Nishi Kyushu University, 4490-9 Ozaki, Kanzaki, Saga, 842-8585, Japan
Email: nakamuramas@nisikyu-u.ac.jp
Publish Date
Received: 03-03-2023
Accepted: 07-03-2023
Published (online): 01-06-2023
 
 
ABSTRACT

The application of thermal agents via hot packs is a commonly utilized method. However, the time-course changes in the range of motion (ROM), stretch sensation, shear elastic modulus, and muscle temperature during hot pack application are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the time-course changes in these variables during a 20-minute hot pack application. Eighteen healthy young men (21.1 ± 0.2 years) participated in this study. We measured the dorsiflexion (DF) ROM, passive torque at DF ROM (an indicator of stretch tolerance), and shear elastic modulus (an indicator of muscle stiffness) of the medial gastrocnemius before and every 5 minutes during a 20-minute hot pack application. The results showed that hot pack application for ≥5 minutes significantly (p < 0.01) increased DF ROM (5 minutes: d = 0.48, 10 minutes: d = 0.59, 15 minutes: d = 0.73, 20 minutes: d = 0.88), passive torque at DF ROM (5 minutes: d = 0.71, 10 minutes: d = 0.71, 15 minutes: d = 0.82, 20 minutes: d = 0.91), and muscle temperature (5 minutes: d = 1.03, 10 minutes: d = 1.71, 15 minutes: d = 1.74, 20 minutes: d = 1.66). Additionally, the results showed that hot pack application for ≥5 minutes significantly (p < 0.05) decreased shear elastic modulus (5 minutes: d = 0.29, 10 minutes: d = 0.31, 15 minutes: d = 0.30, 20 minutes: d = 0.31). These results suggest that hot pack application for a minimum 5 minutes can increase ROM and subsequently decrease muscle stiffness.

Key words: Thermal agents, stretch sensation, muscle stiffness, passive torque, muscle temperature


           Key Points
  • We investigated the time-course changes in the passive properties of the medial gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit during a 20-minute hot pack application.
  • We measured the dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), stretch tolerance, and muscle stiffness before and every 5 minutes during a 20-minute hot pack application.
  • The results showed that hot pack application for ≥5 minutes significantly changed DF ROM, stretch tolerance, and shear elastic modulus.
  • These results suggest that hot pack application for only 5 minutes is necessary to increase ROM and subsequently decrease muscle stiffness.
 
 
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