Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2023) 22, 212 - 225   DOI:

Research article
Semi-Squat Exercises with Varying Levels of Arterial Occlusion Pressure during Blood Flow Restriction Training Induce a Post-Activation Performance Enhancement and Improve Vertical Height Jump in Female Football Players
Depeng Sun1,2, , Tieli Yang1
Author Information
1 Graduate department, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing 100191, China
2 Department of PE, Xi’an University of Finance and Economics, Xi’an 710100, China

Depeng Sun
✉ Graduate department, Capital university of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing 100191, China
Publish Date
Received: 02-01-2023
Accepted: 30-03-2023
Published (online): 01-06-2023

Low-load blood flow restriction training (BFRT) has been shown to induce a significant increase in muscle activation. However, low-load BFRT to augment the post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) has not been previously examined. This study aimed to examine the PAPE of low-intensity semi-squat exercises with varying pressure BFRT on vertical height jump performance. Twelve elite athletes from the Shaanxi Province women’s football team volunteered to participate in this study for 4 weeks. Participants completed four testing sessions that included one of the following at random: (1) non-BFRT, (2) 50% arterial occlusion pressure (AOP), (3) 60% AOP, or (4) 70% AOP. Muscle activity of the lower thigh muscles was recorded using electromyography (EMG). Jump height, peak power output (PPO), vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF), and rate of force development (RFD) were recorded for four trials. Two-factor repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that semi-squat with varying pressure BFRT had a significant impact on the measured muscle EMG amplitude and MF value of vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris (P < 0.05), and MF value decreased with increasing pressure. Muscle activation (EMG amplitude) did not change further. The EMG amplitude of the gluteus maximus was significantly decreased by semi-squat training with different pressures (P < 0.05), while that of the gluteus maximus muscle was gradually increased by non-BFR with semi-squat training (P > 0.05). The 50% and 60% AOP BFRTs significantly increased jump height, peak power, and force increase rate (RFD) after 5 min and 10 min of rest (P < 0.05). This study further confirmed that low-intensity BFRT can significantly increase lower limb muscle activation, induce PAPE, and improve vertical height jump in female footballers. In addition, 50% AOP continuous BFRT is recommended for warm-up activities.

Key words: BFR Training, Post-activation performance enhancement, Vertical jump performance, sporting performance, Temporal profile

           Key Points
  • The improvement in vertical jump shows that the BFRT with 50% AOP or 60% AOP of the lower limb can induce a substantial PAPE stimulus despite equal workload.
  • Compared to the non-BFRT condition, the RMS standard values of the muscles in the lower limb during the semi-squat with BFRT were significantly higher, and the values increased as the sets progressed.
  • Semi-squats with 50% or 60% AOP induced PAPE, and the 50% AOP condition showed better effects in 5-10 min after the semi-squat intervention than the 60% AOP condition.
  • The different BFRT pressures used in this study activated the muscles differently, as muscle activation was enhanced with increasing pressure, and neuromuscular fatigue increased with increasing pressure.
Home Issues About Authors
Contact Current Editorial board Authors instructions
Email alerts In Press Mission For Reviewers
Archive Scope
Supplements Statistics
Most Read Articles
  Most Cited Articles
JSSM | Copyright 2001-2024 | All rights reserved. | LEGAL NOTICES | Publisher

It is forbidden the total or partial reproduction of this web site and the published materials, the treatment of its database, any kind of transition and for any means, either electronic, mechanic or other methods, without the previous written permission of the JSSM.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.