Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2023) 22, 626 - 636   DOI:

Research article
Acute and Prolonged Effects of 300 sec of Static, Dynamic, and Combined Stretching on Flexibility and Muscle Force
Shingo Matsuo1, , Masahiro Iwata1, Manabu Miyazaki2, Taizan Fukaya3, Eiji Yamanaka4, Kentaro Nagata5, Wakako Tsuchida6, Yuji Asai1, Shigeyuki Suzuki7
Author Information
1 Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nihon Fukushi University, Handa, Japan
2 Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medical Science for Health, Teikyo Heisei University, Tokyo, Japan
3 Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Social Work Studies, Josai International University, Togane, Japan
4 Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Tokyo Bay Rehabilitation Hospital, Narashino, Japan
5 Department of International Affairs, Project Division, Japanese Physical Therapy Association, Tokyo, Japan
6 Health and Medical Research Institute, Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Kagawa, Japan
7 Department of Health and Sports Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Asahi University, Mizuho, Japan

Shingo Matsuo
✉ Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nihon Fukushi University, 26-2 Higashihaemi-cho, Handa, Aichi 475-0012, Japan
Publish Date
Received: 02-05-2023
Accepted: 25-09-2023
Published (online): 01-12-2023

Static stretching (SS), dynamic stretching (DS), and combined stretching (CS; i.e., DS+SS) are commonly performed as warm-up exercises. However, the stretching method with the greatest effect on flexibility and performance remains unclear. This randomized crossover trial examined acute and prolonged effects of SS, DS, and CS on range of motion (ROM), peak passive torque (PPT), passive stiffness, and isometric and concentric muscle forces. Twenty healthy young men performed 300 sec of active SS, DS, or CS (150-sec SS followed by 150-sec DS and 150-sec DS followed by 150-sec SS) of the right knee flexors on four separate days, in random order. Subsequently, we measured ROM, PPT, and passive stiffness during passive knee extension. We also measured maximum voluntary isometric and concentric knee flexion forces and surface electromyographic activities during force measurements immediately before, immediately after, and 20 and 60 min after stretching. All stretching methods significantly increased ROM and PPT, while significantly decreasing isometric knee flexion force (all p < 0.05). These changes lasted 60 min after all stretching methods; the increases in ROM and PPT and the decreases in isometric muscle force were similar. All stretching methods also significantly decreased passive stiffness immediately after stretching (all p < 0.05). Decreases in passive stiffness tended to be longer after CS than after SS or DS. Concentric muscle force was decreased after SS and CS (all p < 0.05). On the other hand, concentric muscle force was unchanged after DS, while the decreases in surface electromyographic activities during concentric force measurements after all stretching methods were similar. Our results suggest that 300 sec of SS, DS, and CS have different acute and prolonged effects on flexibility and muscle force.

Key words: Warm-up exercise, retention time, range of motion, passive torque, passive stiffness, muscle performance

           Key Points
  • We compared the acute and prolonged effects of static, dynamic, and combined stretching on range of motion, peak passive torque, passive stiffness, and isometric and concentric muscle forces.
  • After stretching, acute and prolonged increases in the range of motion and peak passive torque, and decreases in isometric muscle force, were not different between stretching methods.
  • Decreases in passive stiffness after combined stretching tended to be longer than those after static and dynamic stretching, but they decreased immediately after all stretching methods.
  • Concentric muscle force was unchanged after dynamic stretching, but it was decreased after static and combined stretching.
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