Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2023) 22, 790 - 796   DOI:

Research article
A New Index to Evaluate Running Coordination Based on Notational Analysis
Jesús Martínez-Sobrino1, José Antonio Navia2, Juan Del Campo-Vecino3, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes4, Santiago Veiga-Fernández1, 
Author Information
1 Departamento de Deportes, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
2 Facultad de Educación, Universidad de Alcalá, Madrid, Spain
3 Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Facultad de formación de Profesorado y Educación, Madrid, Spain
4 Centre for Sport Studies, Rey Juan Carlos University, Madrid, Spain

Santiago Veiga-Fernández
✉ Departamento de Deportes, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Publish Date
Received: 21-07-2023
Accepted: 22-11-2023
Published (online): 01-12-2023

The aim of this study was 1) to define a new index to describe running coordination, named % of coordination, and 2) to examine whether it could represent an order parameter in relation to running velocity. Twelve international middle-distance athletes (six males and six females) performed three trials at easy, 5000 m pace and sprint velocities while filmed from a lateral view at 240 Hz. Notational analysis of six lower-limb key events corresponding to touchdown, mid-stance and flight phases was performed with high values of intra- (maximum standard deviation = 7 ms) and inter-operator (maximum systematic bias = 6 ms) reliability. Running velocity manipulations resulted in substantial and progressive increases in stride length, stride frequency (all p’s < 0.001) and % of coordination (p < 0.001; η²p = 0.77), while duty factor showed a progressive reduction (p < 0.001, R2c = 0.86). However, % of coordination depended on the stride phase (p < 0.001; η²p = 0.78), with greater time gaps between key events in touchdown and mid-stance than in the flight phase. Results confirmed that % of coordination can illustrate changes in movement organisation, representing an easy tool for evaluating the running technique of competitive athletes.

Key words: Biomechanics, motor control, dynamical systems, performance, running

           Key Points
  • A new running coordination index to evaluate the patterns of running coordination was obtained from notational analysis of the running cycle.
  • % of coordination in the touchdown, mid-stance and flight phases increased according to increases in the running velocity.
  • A lower % of coordination was detected at touchdown and mid-stance compared to the flight phase.
Home Issues About Authors
Contact Current Editorial board Authors instructions
Email alerts In Press Mission For Reviewers
Archive Scope
Supplements Statistics
Most Read Articles
  Most Cited Articles
JSSM | Copyright 2001-2024 | All rights reserved. | LEGAL NOTICES | Publisher

It is forbidden the total or partial reproduction of this web site and the published materials, the treatment of its database, any kind of transition and for any means, either electronic, mechanic or other methods, without the previous written permission of the JSSM.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.