Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2023) 22, 797 - 805   DOI:

Research article
Relationships between Changes in Muscle Shear Modulus, Urinary Titin N- Terminal Fragment, and Maximum Voluntary Contraction Torque after Eccentric Exercise of the Elbow Flexors
Takayuki Inami1, , Shota Yamaguchi1, Takuya Nishioka1, Hiroyuki Ishida2, Akihisa Morito3, Satoshi Yamada3, Naoya Nagata1, Mitsuyoshi Murayama1
Author Information
1 Institute of Physical Education, Keio University, Japan
2 Sports Medicine Research Center, Keio University, Japan
3 Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Japan

Takayuki Inami
✉ Institute of Physical Education, Keio University, Sports Complex Rm. 302, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 2238521 Japan
Publish Date
Received: 26-05-2023
Accepted: 27-11-2023
Published (online): 01-12-2023

The study aimed to investigate the relationships between the shear modulus of the biceps brachii (BB) and brachialis muscle (BA) and the total of the two (BB+BA), and urinary titin N-terminal fragment (UTF), maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), and other indirect markers. Fifteen healthy men performed five sets of 10 eccentric contractions using a dumbbell corresponding to 50% of MVC at 90° measured at baseline. The elbow joint of the left arm was extended from 90° to 180° (180° = full extension) in 5 s in the exercise, and was returned with support from the examiner to prevent concentric contraction. Shear modulus of BB and BA were measured by ultrasound shear wave elastography, and UTF, MVC, and range of motion of the elbow joint (ROM) were recorded before; immediately after; and 1, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 168 h after the exercise. After calculating the shear modulus of BB and BA, two values were added (BB+BA). The shear modulus peaked at 48 h, UTF peaked at 96 h, MVC and ROM changed largest at immediately, and muscle soreness peaked at 48 h post-exercise. Significant (p < 0.05) relationships were found between changes in BB shear modulus and BA shear modulus (r = 0.874), BB+BA shear modulus (r = 0.977), UTF (r = 0.681), and MVC (r = −0.538). Significant (p < 0.05) relationships were also observed between changes in BA shear modulus and BB+BA shear modulus (r = 0.957), UTF (r = 0.682), MVC (r = −0.522), and ROM (r = −0.600). Moreover, significant (p < 0.05) relationships were observed between changes in BB+BA shear modulus and UTF (r = 0.703), MVC (r = −0.549), and ROM (r = −0.547). These results indicate that shear modulus of each muscle (i.e., BB and BA) provide more precise information about muscle damage than UTF, MVC and ROM.

Key words: Shear wave elastography, exercise-induced muscle damage, biceps brachii, brachialis muscle

           Key Points
  • Moderate relationships exist between changes in shear modulus and other muscle damage markers such as UTF, MVC, and ROM.
  • No significant difference was found for the changes in shear modulus between biceps brachii and brachialis muscle.
  • To better understand the relationships between the shear modulus of the elbow flexors and UTF and MVC, assessing the brachioradialis shear modulus is necessary.
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