Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2023) 22, 98 - 110   DOI: https://doi.org/10.52082/jssm.2023.98

Research article
Utility of a Physical Fitness Score in Screening for Chronic Diseases
Takaaki Sato1, Kazuya Fujihara1, , Mayuko Harada Yamada1, Kaori Chou1, Yuta Yaguchi1, Masaru Kitazawa1, Hajime Ishiguro1, Taeko Osawa1, Takaho Yamada1, Satoru Kodama1,2, Kiminori Kato1,2, Hirohito Sone1
Author Information
1 Department of Hematology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata, Japan
2 Department of Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promotion of Health Checkup, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan

Kazuya Fujihara
✉ MD, PhD Niigata University Faculty of Medicine Department of Hematology, Endocrinology and Metabolism Niigata, Japan, 951-8520
Email: kafujihara-dm@umin.ac.jp
Publish Date
Received: 18-11-2022
Accepted: 03-02-2023
Published (online): 01-03-2023
 
 
ABSTRACT

We developed a new Physical Score (PS) consisting of comprehensive physical fitness indicators and elucidated the association between the resultant PS and metabolic diseases, i.e., diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, fatty liver, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), among Japanese. Analyzed were 49,850 persons (30,039 men) aged 30 to 69 y who underwent physical fitness tests. Principal component analysis was performed on the correlation matrix of the physical fitness test results (relative grip strength, single-leg balance with eyes closed, and forward bending) according to sex and age. We defined the PS as the first principal component score. A formula was developed for various age groups comprised of men and women from 30 to 69 years of age from which the PS for each age and sex was calculated. The PS for both men and women was normally distributed with a value of 0 ± 1.15-1.16. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of metabolic diseases increased approximately 1.1-1.6 times per each 1-point reduction in the PS. The association between PS and MetS was particularly strong in that a 1-point reduction in the PS increased the risk of MetS by 1.54 times (95% confidence interval 1.46 to 1.62) in men and by 1.21 times (1.15 to 1.28) in women. The association between a lower PS and disease risk was stronger in younger men for fatty liver and in older men for MetS. Conversely, in women, the association between a lower PS and disease risk was stronger in older women for fatty liver and in younger women for MetS. For diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, the change in the impact of PS reductions across age groups was small. The PS is a useful and simple non-invasive tool for screening Japanese people for metabolic diseases.

Key words: Balance, Flexibility, Grip strength, Screening for diseases


           Key Points
  • We developed a comprehensive physical fitness score (Physical Score) that takes into account the effects of age and sex.
  • The Physical Score may be a useful and simple non-invasive tool for screening Japanese people for metabolic diseases.
  • The Physical Score will make it easier to communicate to patients the results of an overall physical fitness assessment and disease risk according to their current status.
 
 
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