Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2024) 23, 147 - 155   DOI:

Research article
Analysis of Pushing Forces During the Water Polo Eggbeater: Reliability and Validity of a Novel Approach
Félix Croteau1,2,3, , Elouan Lanoé1,4, Julien Clément1,2,4
Author Information
1 Institut national du sport du Québec, Montréal, Canada
2 Water Polo Canada, Montréal, Canada
3 McGill University, School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, Montréal, Canada
4 École de Technologie Supérieure, Département de Génie des systèmes, Montréal, Canada

Félix Croteau
✉ Institut national du sport du Québec, 4141 avenue Pierre de Coubertin, H4V 1N7, Montréal, Québec, Canada
Publish Date
Received: 09-10-2023
Accepted: 02-02-2024
Published (online): 01-03-2024

Water polo players benefit from greater odds of success when maintaining their tactical position against their opponents. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of a water-based resistance test to replicate this skill.Thirty-three water polo players participated in this study (19 males and 14 females, 14 from senior and 19 from junior national teams). Data were collected during two regular training sessions, separated by one week, using a load cell to instrument a weight stack resistance setup on the pool deck. Performance parameters such as mean force, maximum force, mean peak force and total impulse were defined with custom Python scripts. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC3,1). Group comparisons were explored between male and female players. Level of significance was set at p < 0.05. The reliability findings were high to very high for the mean force, maximum force, mean peak force, inter-stroke range, and total impulse (ICC 0.85-0.93, p < 0.01). Group comparisons showed significantly greater values in male players for these variables (p < 0.01, ES = 1.05-9.36) with large to very large effect sizes. However, there was no significant difference in endurance measured between sexes (p = 0.88, ES = 0.04). This study presents a methodology with satisfactory metrological qualities for field applications using simple and affordable equipment. The testing apparatus presented in this study can readily be replicated in a variety of training environments by practitioners working with water polo teams. Coaches can use this approach to evaluate individual player progress or to compare performance across a group of water polo players.

Key words: Aquatic, strength, swimming, performance analysis

           Key Points
  • Using a standard resistance allows to readily compare force output across different players that must do the same task in a water polo match.
  • This study presents a method that can readily be implemented using training equipment with minimal costs.
  • A list of six variables showed high to very high reliability in describing performance: overall mean force, mean peak force, maximal force, inter-stroke range, total impulse, and a new proposed endurance index.
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